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Maria Todorova

Chapter 1. Chapter 2. Chapter 3. Chapter 4. Nostalgia for the JNA? Chapter 5. Chapter 6. Chapter 7. Sandanski and his friends, such as Pavel Deliradev, repeated these opinions about the Balkan states in different meetings and speeches in Salonica during the following days and weeks. An alliance we should make with Turks, but not with Bulgaria. Gaining the support of a very famous Christian committee leader like Sandanski was very important for the CUP.

Yane Sandanski as a political leader in Macedonia in the era of the Young Turks

This contributed to the legitimization of the change of power in the eyes of the European public. Being aware of this fact, the Young Turks adopted a very positive attitude towards Sandanski. But they were also interested in receiving support from other committees in the empire.

Thus, they tried to bring the right and left wings of the IMRO together. The unification attempts failed, and the rivalry among the two groups continued in the new period, in the form of mutual propaganda. Sandanski was sentenced to death and attacked by the members of the right wing. He survived two assassination attempts in Salonica on 24 September and 14 August He was aware of the fact that maintaining his position depended on good relations with the CUP.

Sandanski tried to assure the confidence of the Young Turks; this was not difficult for him, because his enemy—namely, the right wing—adopted a very reserved attitude towards the CUP. As already mentioned above, the Ottoman press portrayed Sandanski as a reformist leader advocating the territorial integrity of the empire, while the right wing was described as separatists. The right wing contacted the Bulgarian government and tried to save the privileges of the Bulgarian Exarchate.

Sandanski, however, was against the religious character of education and demanded its secularization. This was the main difference in the claims of both wings of the IMRO. The main points—that is, their political demands and proposals—of the program were as follows:. The first one was against the expectations of the Young Turks and the second against the demands of the Greek Patriarchate and the Bulgarian Exarchate. The declaration was as follows:. But it was a centralist program, and the demands of all non-Turkish political groups in Macedonia for the decentralization of administration were rejected.

A common program for the solution of the Macedonian Question could not be found throughout the negotiations in July and August In the elections, the most important rival of Sandanski was the new Bulgarian Constitution Clubs established by the right wing in cooperation with the Exarchate and the Bulgarian government. In the area of his influence, Sandanski did not tolerate any propaganda attempts of the Bulgarian Constitution Clubs.

For the CUP, however, it was important that all significant population groups were represented in the new Ottoman parliament. This would give evidence that, on one hand, no population group had the dominant majority in Macedonia; on the other hand, it would be easier to balance the interests of the different political groups in Macedonia and to manage them He received gifts from the CUP, including a horse of the newly overthrown Sultan Abdulhamid and privileges such as the use of the thermal springs and forests of Melnik.

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On 23 August , the parliament accepted a law banning national political organizations and parties Political organizations with ethnic or national names had to change their names within two months. The Bulgarian Constitution Clubs under Toma Karayovov protested this law and decided to dissolve the organization. He was criticized by both the Constitution Clubs and the leftist deputies who pursued a more Bulgarian nationalist attitude in the parliament.

The national Bulgarian press used this opportunity and launched a propaganda campaign against Sandanski.


  1. Navigation!
  2. Vasil Levski.
  3. That Holiday Feeling: Silver Bells; The Perfect Holiday; Under the Christmas Tree!
  4. Transnational Whiteness Matters.

Sandanski was attacked and accused of betraying the Bulgarians in Macedonia, since he did not launch an illegal armed movement against the Ottoman government. He continued with his legitimate political activity Applying oppressive measures, the Ottoman government disarmed first the Albanians and then the Macedonians. The national Bulgarian groups resisted this measure, which provoked the Ottoman authorities to institute even more oppressive measures.

Many members of the right-wing group took refuge in Bulgaria. The CUP also wanted to carry out the disarmament of the population in the region dominated by Sandanski. Sandanski, however, rejected this action, thereby causing tension between him and the CUP. In the process of negotiations, Sandanski ensured the CUP that in his region he was responsible for all illegal actions and that it was not necessary to disarm the population.

Parallel to this development, opposition of the Bulgarian government, the national Bulgarian circles, and the Bulgarian press against Sandanski also increased. Even the socialist groups in Bulgaria criticized Sandanski as a collaborator of the Turks The newly established IMRO, which was a purely Bulgarian nationalist committee, began its activities in Macedonia in , with the aim of destabilizing the Ottoman government and preparing Macedonia for a war in which Bulgaria was expected to lead with the aim to annex Macedonia.

This new committee preferred to execute bomb attacks in cities. Interestingly, however, Sandanski did not change his policy and maintained his alliance with the CUP. As he had done before, he rejected any interference by the Bulgarian nationalists in the area of his influence. The other three Bulgarian representatives elected to parliament were also in alliance with the CUP The CUP government was forced to resign in the middle of On the verge of the Balkan Wars, Sandanski decided to launch once more an armed movement against Ottoman rule.

This decision was influenced by two important factors: first, Sandanski could foresee that the Bulgarian army, supported by the other Balkan states, would occupy the area dominated by him. In that case, it would be more reasonable to be in alliance with Bulgaria. Second, the CUP was no longer in the Ottoman government; on the contrary, committee members were mistreated and punished by the new government that was formed after the fall of the CUP government.

Consequently, Sandanski was left all alone. By joining the Balkan alliance, he probably expected that Macedonia would gain some sort of autonomy, or that the new government would recognize the rule of Sandanski in the area of his influence Sandanski helped the occupying armies with his guerillas.


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  • Bones of Contention.
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  • Bones of contention: the living archive of Vasil Levski and the making of Bulgaria's national hero;
  • The Bulgarian Macedonian bands destructed the infrastructure of the region in order to help the armies of the Balkan states; they burnt Muslim villages, massacred Muslim population. Abstract This book is about documenting and analyzing the living archive around the figure of Vasil Levski , arguably the major and only uncontested hero of the Bulgarian national pantheon. Fingerprint Bulgaria. National Hero. Political Parties. Comparative Research. Religious Institutions.

    Keywords Bulgaria historiography revolutionaries.